Why Do Dogwood Trees Are Both Red and Blue Berries Through the Autumn?

Flowering dogwood shrubs and trees (Cornus) are members of a genus that feature about sixty-five species, all indigenous to the northern hemisphere. Many are distinguished by showy flower heads, flowers or bracts. Big or small, the flowers always have four petals. Popular varieties, like common flowering dogwood (Cornus florida), hardy in U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) hardiness zones 5 through 8, bear reddish autumn fruits. Some varieties, however, feature drop fruits that are red when immature and turn blue-black or dark as they age.


Dogwood fruits can be either red, blue-black or white at maturity. All these are classified as “drupes,” meaning the actual seed is enclosed in a stony wall, which is in turn enclosed with a fleshy exterior layer. Trees and shrubs in the genus often have round or oblong fall fruits, however Kousa dogwoods (Cornus kousa), hardy in zones 8 and 7, bear fruits that look like strawberries. Dogwood fruits are attractive and edible to birds and small animals. Some species’ fruits may cause mild gastric distress in humans.


White-flowered black-fruit dogwood (Cornus sessilis) is hardy in zones 7 through 10 and bears red fruit which ages to black in the autumn. It is a multistemmed shrub that grows to 15 feet tall. Growing from 6 to 12 feet tall, with an equal spread, silky dogwood (Cornus amomum) is a deciduous shrub bearing clusters of small white flowers and fruit which ages to dark. It is hardy in zones 5 through 8.


Hardy in zones 6 through 8 or 9, Cornus controversa bears clusters of small, star-shaped blooms, rather than the bigger blossoms of more common varieties. It is a spreading tree which rises to 45 feet tall and bears fruits which era from red to black in the autumn. Big-leaf dogwood (Cornus macrophylla) appears much like Cornus controversa, with fragrant clusters of white flowers. It is hardy in zones 6 through 9 and rises up to 30 feet tall.


Generally, the dogwood species using the showiest flowers, like common dogwood (Cornus florida) and Oriental dogwood (Cornus kousa) bear red fruit that does not era to black. Cluster-flowered varieties are more inclined to have fruits which darken as they ripen in the fall. The combination of appealing flowers, excellent fall color in several varieties and species, brightly colored fresh growth in some species and showy autumn fruits make dogwood species great choices for woodland gardens, ponds gardens and designs where landscape elements must remain fascinating in three or maybe four seasons.

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How to Kill Sedge Grass at a Vegetable Garden

There are more than 900 types of sedge — a fast-growing, grasslike plant that loves moist, sunny locations — found throughout North America, which makes it one of the most common weeds you’ll encounter in your vegetable garden. Don’t let sedge rob your vegetable plants of the dirt space and nutrients they require. Using a combination of mechanical, chemical and cultural controls, then it is possible to kill sedge and produce an environment that’s unfriendly toward that vigorous weed.

Water your vegetable plants only when absolutely necessary and apply water directly at the base of each plant instead of using a sprinkler or indiscriminately spraying the whole garden. Sedge requires moist growing conditions, and its appearance generally means you are over-watering your vegetable harvest. Letting the soil dry out will often quickly kill this weed.

Arrange your vegetable plants as closely as possible in tight rows to shade the soil, and think about intermingling thin, tall vegetable plants with large, leafy vegetables, such as lettuce or chard. This helps shade the vegetable garden as most sedges cannot tolerate shade, it may tighten or kills existing sedge when decreasing the growth of new sedge.

Pull the sedge out by hand by grasping the weed at its bottom and pulling upwards. Hand weeding typically leaves supporting the bud roots and it will regrow, but continuous removal forces the plant to utilize its energy to generate new shoots, and doing so once every two weeks will normally overstress the sedge and destroy it.

Spray the sedge using herbicide if all other methods of control and eradication don’t suffice. For the best results specifically against sedge weeds, then the herbicide should contain one of the following chemicals: sulfentrazone, bentazon, imazaquin or halosulfuron. Use the herbicide in line with the manufacturer-specific guidelines as toxicity and potency varies widely by product, and avoid getting the herbicide on any of your vegetable plants.

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How to Use Black Landscaping Fabric in the Garden

Utilizing a woven, black landscape fabric can prevent almost all weeds in a garden bed, and humidity flows through the cloth to the soil. Proper installation of this fabric ensures weeds can not breach the bed’s seams or edges and prevents damage to the cloth. Think about black landscape fabric a long-term mulch since it doesn’t require annual replacement. It is best suited to perennial flowerbeds and shrub and tree beds since annual plantings require annual digging that can damage the fabric.

Add compost, fertilizer and other soil amendments into the garden bed’s soil. You won’t have the ability to enhance the soil after you set up the black landscape fabric. Smooth the amended soil so it’s level and flat.

Unroll black landscape fabric over the garden bed with the cloth’s heavenly side in contact with the soil. Fold 3 inches of the cloth borders upward, and smooth them against the edging enclosing the garden bed so no difference exists between the cloth and bed edging. If you use many sheets of fabric to cover the garden bed, overlap each sheet of fabric by 1 foot so weeds can not grow between the sheets.

Catch a hexagonal backyard staple through the landscape fabric and to the soil, anchoring the cloth into the ground. Repeat that process, placing U-shaped garden staples every 1 foot round the garden bed’s perimeter. Put additional staples along the seams where two pieces of fabric overlap.

Cut a hole in the cloth with a utility knife to every plant you want to place in the garden bed. Make each hole 4 inches wider than the foundation of its individual plant, especially with perennials, so that stems and trunks have room to grow.

Spread a 3-inch thick layer of organic mulch, such as wood chips, over the top of this black landscape fabric. Mulch camouflages the dark fabric, protects if from the elements and keeps soil from overheating beneath the cloth. Pull the mulch away from the foundation of all the plants so mulch does not rest directly against plant stems.

Water the fabric-mulched bed as usual, using either overhead or drip irrigation. Because moisture gathered through landscape fabric and to the soil, special watering is not essential. Apply fertilizer right to the soil near the foundation of the plants, taking care never to get fertilizer on plant stems and foliage.

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How to Prune Muscadine Canes

Muscadine grapevines (Muscadiniana rotundifolia) are commonly called scuppernongs. When ripe, the berries range from bronze to dark purple in colour, depending on the variety grown. Because of their tough exterior, Muscadine grapes are mostly used for producing jelly, juice or wine. When eaten raw, their tough skin must be punctured and the pulp subsequently sucked out of inside. They need less frightening hours than other grape types and have a long storage life. Muscadine grapevines do well in many conditions and have an extremely high tolerance to pests and diseases. They need regular pruning each time to ensure decent fruit production and maintain healthy vigor.

Remove all but the two healthiest canes in late winter before bud break with pruning shears. Cut the weaker canes flush with the grapevine back or lateral branch.

Trim down the two present canes in early spring so every cane has just 12 to 15 buds remaining , making the cut 1/3 inch above the grass node. These buds will expand into posterior divisions, called spurs.

Grow the spurs in a spacing of 6 to 12 inches apart on the main canes. Prune away new sprouts that begin to develop between the spurs throughout the growing season.

Cut back spurs to four or three buds each fall before dormancy, 1/3 inch above the grass node. The rest of the buds will expand into new spurs the subsequent season.

Remove one-fourth of this fruiting canes during dormancy, four to five years after planting to force new wood to develop. Utilize the cut flush with the the grapevine back or lateral branch.

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Fruit Plants That Bear Fruit in the First Year

Some strawberry (Fragaria spp.) , raspberry and blackberry (Rubus spp.) Varieties are among the plants which bear fruits their first year. Growing berry plants at a home garden can be easy and rewarding, and many berry varieties are ideal for a home garden than a industrial production since berries are highly permeable. They add flavor and health benefits to meals and snacks. Dwarf and grafted fruit trees like lemons (Citrus spp.) Can also be grown in a home garden and may produce fruits their first year.

Kinds of Strawberries

Choose June-bearing or even day-neutral strawberries in your garden. Both kinds make fruits their very first year, but removing June-bearing strawberries’ first-year blossoms might cause a better crop from those plants their second season. June-bearing strawberries produce fruits for several weeks in June or earlier as soon as the weather is warm. Day-neutral strawberries, sometimes also called ever-bearing strawberries, which may begin to make fruits three months after they were planted. Crop production by June-bearing strawberries depends upon the length of daylight hours within a day while day-neutral strawberries keep fruits regardless of the daylight hour span. “Tristar” strawberry (Fragaria “Tristar”) is a day-neutral strawberry that’s perennial, or hardy, in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 4 through 9.

Kinds of Red Raspberries

When selecting red raspberry plants, then you have the alternatives of summer-bearing and fall-bearing varieties, but summer-bearing strawberries create fruits just in their second season. Fall-bearing raspberries are also called “ever-bearing,” plus they create fruits their first year on stems, or canes, called “primocanes.” They have a small crop in a bigger one in fall. 1 fall-bearing number is “Heritage” (Rubus idaeus var. Strigosus “Heritage”), that is hardy in USDA zones 4 through 8.

Blackberry Varieties

Blackberries are available in many varieties and vary from strawberries in fruit color, fruit taste and growth habit. Thorny blackberry varieties have sharp, large thorns and a trailing growth habit. If you don’t need a plant with thorns, then buy a thornless hybrid. Most blackberries are biennial plants, fruiting on just second-year canes, but first-year- or primocane-bearing varieties were made available by the University of Arkansas at 2004. One of these primocane-bearing blackberry varieties is Prime-Jim (Rubus “APF-12”), hardy in USDA zones 4 through 8.

Non-Berry Fruit Plants

Choose a grafted or dwarf fruit tree if you want to harvest fruit in a tree during its first year in your yard, however even a grafted or dwarf tree may not fruit until a subsequent calendar year. A fruit tree grown from seed, however, takes many years to mature enough to make fruits. “Eureka” lemon (Citrus limon “Eureka”) is also an example of a lemon tree with early fruiting. That tree survives outdoors all year in USDA zones 9 through 10. You can encourage a lemon tree to orange by planting it in a warm, protected spot.

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Types of Mops

Unless you’ve got an assortment of different floor coverings in your house, you may not have had the chance to appreciate the diversity of mops. There is one for each purpose, for example those for wet mopping massive areas, small ones, and mops for cleaning surfaces that water can damage.

String Mops

The string mop is the one to reach for if you have to wash a concrete or vinyl floor. The least expensive is a string mop with cut ends. You also may choose one with looped ends, which is absorbent and machine washable. A third choice is just one with strings made of polyester microfibers instead of cotton or rayon yarn. These aren’t as absorbent, but they do not promote mould growth and are more sanitary. They can be washed more than 500 times without degrading.

Flat and Steam Mops

Microfiber apartment mops are the best for cleaning hardwood flooring; they easily pick up dirt, even if dry or slightly moistened, so they do not produce a water threat to the wood. Most apartment mops have removable pads you’ll be able to launder, and a few come with a proprietary non-water-based cleaning solution. A steam mop is a variation of a flat mop with an attached electric steam generator; it’s an effective dirt buster but it should not be used on hardwood flooring because it can cause water damage.

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Oil Mixture to Old Lawn-Boy Mowers

Mixing the right oil-to-gasoline ratio in a two-cycle engine lubricates internal components, preventing damage to the motor. If you own a Lawn-Boy mower equipped with a D-400 string engine, fabricated from the late 1970s through 1983, Lawn-Boy recommends a 16:1 ratio of gasoline to oil to keep the engine properly lubricated. Since the oil-to-fuel ratio can vary dependent on the year the device was fabricated, prevent under- or even overmixing by checking the owner’s manual for the appropriate ratio. Also, keep in mind gasoline is flammable. Prevent a fire by turning off the mower’s engine before mixing fuel, rather than mixture gasoline near an open fire.

Utilize Right Octane Rating

Ensuring that your mower runs its best means using the correct grade of gasoline along with two-cycle oil. Lawn-Boy recommends using unleaded gasoline using an octane rating of 86 in its D-400 string engines. The manufacturer warns against using gasoline containing ethanol or methanol, and not to use automotive grade oil. To prevent hard-starting motors, always use fresh gasoline — gas maybe not over 30 days old. Stale gas can cause gumming in the gas line.

Mixing Ratio

If you have lost the manual for your mower’s engine, another area you can find the right oil-to-gas mixing ratio is about the motor’s housing — the outer part of the engine. Look for a small plate with the mixing ratio stamped on it, or it might be stamped directly onto the engine. If you do not locate the ratio on the motor, Lawn-Boy recommends combining 8 ounces of any non-Lawn-Boy brand two-cycle motor to 1 gallon of gasoline for its D-400 string engines manufactured from the late 1970s through 1983. Make sure the oil is a high-quality two-cycle oil. For a smaller batch, mix 4 ounces of two-cycle oil to 1/2 gallon of gasoline.

How to Mix

To ensure the motor is properly lubricated, the petroleum and gasoline has to be thoroughly mixed before pouring it in the gas tank. Not fully mixing the oil and gas could cause inadequate lubrication and motor damage. To correctly mix fuel, measure the recommended amount of two-cycle oil to your plastic Department of Transportation-approved gas container, then add the recommended amount of gasoline. Replace the container’s cap, then gently swirl the gas and oil together. Do not vigorously shake the container.

Indications of Wrong Oil Ratio

If you haven’t combined the suitable number of two-cycle oil to the gasoline, your motor will let you know. Not enough oil causes scoring, or grooves, on the pistons, and when not corrected eventually, the motor seizes and is not repairable. Adding too much oil causes blue smoke to billow from the exhaust along with oil splatters. An excessive amount of oil is not as harmful as not enough, but if you see signs of it, then drain the gas tank to your DOT-approved container and remix the oil and gas to the right ratio.

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Can You Store Hibiscus in a Dormant State Over the Winter?

How well your hibiscus plants handle winter cold depends on their variety. The hardy hibiscus common rose mallow (Hibiscus moscheutos) and althea (Hibiscus syriacus), for instance, survive winters outdoors in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 5 through 8a and 5 during 9a, respectively. Tropical hibiscus, also called Chinese hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), however, is hardy outdoors annually in only USDA zones 9 through 11. For it, even the uncommon frosty night that occasionally surprises Mediterranean-climate gardeners is too much. Store tropical hibiscus plants indoors through their winter dormancy to appreciate their summer blooms for several years.

Planning Ahead

Boost hibiscus in pots if you want to overwinter the plants indoors. A hibiscus can live for many years in a 10- to 14-inch-diameter container, as stated by the Tropical Hibiscus site. If you like the idea of inground hibiscus shrubs, then sink potted ones up to the pots’ rims in the soil for the summer. When you are prepared to move the plants indoors in autumn, lift and rinse their containers. Hibiscus planted directly from the ground often succumb to root rot once they are lifted and potted for winter.

Preparing Your Plant

Prepare your hibiscus plants for the move two or three days before the autumn nighttime temperature is forecast to hit 40 degrees Fahrenheit. Using clean, sharp tools, prune the plants back back to within 4 inches of the main stems, disinfecting your tools with rubbing alcohol between cuts to avoid spreading plant diseases. Also remove dead leaves, flowers and other debris in the plants and their containers. Preparing helps remove insects that might move indoors with the plants. Decide on a garden hose’s spray nozzle on its best spray, and bend down the plants until all their surfaces drip water.

Making the Go

Whenever your hibiscus are dry, place them indoors near sunny, south- or west-facing windows. If your house is brief on sunlight, set the plants under timed fluorescent lighting for 16 hours every day. The ideal indoor location comes with a temperature between 55 and 70 F; the cooler it is, the less likely hibiscus plants would be to sponsor insects as winter progresses.

Waiting and Watering

Tropical hibiscus typically drop their leaves following a move indoors. So don’t panic if yours lose leaves. They have simply become dormant for winter. During their dormancy, wait for their potting medium to dry almost completely before putting them in a sink or shower for a long, slow soaking. Let them drain fully before returning them for their regular spots. Misting the plants everyday with a good spray of water compensates the reduced humidity of warm indoor air. Instead, set the hibiscus’ pots on shallow trays of water-covered pebbles, and top off the trays’ water as it evaporates.

Waking Them from Winter

In February or March, remove and remove the top 2 inches of the hibiscus’ growing medium. Boost the impacts of the fresh medium with a dose of slow-release, 19-6-12 indoor plant food. For every single 10-inch bud, sprinkle 1 tablespoon of fertilizer, or the fertilizer tag’s recommended quantity, evenly over the growing medium, and water the medium. Plants in bigger pots require more fertilizer, as the fertilizer label instructions indicate. Cut each division back to a leaf node, wait for glossy, green leaves to emerge and then move your hibiscus plants back outside when nighttime temperatures are always above 55 F. Set them in a shaded location, and move them a little closer to sunlight every day for approximately ten days, or until they acclimate to outside life.

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What Color Wall Moves With Mottled Sand Tiles?

Mottled-sand tiles on the ground or backsplash are an easy, color-versatile medium to work with, even though the color you put on the walls requires away from or adds to their neutrality. Sand becomes lighter, more energized with specific colors, and coolly calming with others. Find the ideal wall color by giving thought into your style preference. You almost can not go wrong, picking a color that goes with white, beige and tan flecks — “almost.”

More Sand

For the small space, sand-colored walls mix with mottled sand tiles, visually expanding square footage with no contrast to draw borders. Pull the paint color from the mid-sand tone. Use the other lighter and darker sandy hues in the furniture and accessories to pull the monochromatic look jointly.

Neutral Blends

Neutral tones, beyond mud, provide pleasing results when paired with mottled-sand tiles. Pale gray, by way of example, offsets sand, forming a contemporary atmosphere. White, off white or white cream-colored paint cools the warm tones inside a mixed-sand tile. Charcoal, ebony or espresso provide richness, making sandy tiles pop. Rusty browns exaggerate or lift out any reddish hues found in mottled sand, warming the scheme.

More Contrast

In case your internal designer daydreams of sandy beaches, blue walls with sand-colored tiles take you there with her. Aqua blue represents water, whilst sky blue, the seagull-dotted skies. Wrap either blue upon the fifth wall — the ceiling — to get a smooth look, as the scene appears from an on-your-back-on-a-beach-blanket vantage point. If blue does not float your style boat, decide on a sea purple or green green which will conceal blue undertones.

Examine Analogous

Sand’s neighbours on the color wheel comprise pale lemon and salmon, which go as well together in a layout palette because they do on a plate. Any three side or analogous colors mix together without visual conflict. If you are following an airy, light, bright effect, go with yellow walls. To get a warmer, more vibrant look, salmon or pale reddish brown supply spicy heat — like a splash of cayenne.

Before You Paint

Paint swatches seldom look exactly the exact same on the wall as they do in the shop display. Take your faves home. Hold them up against the wall, next to the tile, during various times of day. This lets you experience their true colors under distinct lighting, and see how many colors relate to mottled mud; it is much better to find out a color does not work before it is covering the planned walls, floor to ceiling.

Paint Alternative

Along similar color schemes, but as a substitute for paint, then opt for striped, paisley, ikat or even floral-print wallpaper which does not at all resemble the veins or speckles running through mottled tiles. The more diverse the look, the more intriguing and also bumped-up the design outcome.

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How to Quit a Huskee Mower

Lawn mowers have been a blessing for homeowners because the first patent for a reel mower in the early 1800s. Ever since then, mowers have become more advanced and manufacturers have jumped into the mowing game, such as Huskee. Huskee’s line includes mowers and lawn tractors; the business also manufactures outdoor power equipment. Mowers need regular maintenance to perform while they’ve created the chore of mowing less labor-intensive. Cutting troubles, including scalping cuts and streaks, may occur because of user error or problems with the tractor or mower itself.

Uneven Lawn

Inspect your yard for hills or bumps; particularly in areas where your mower is scalping. Even tiny hills or bumps can get the mower blades to scalp the grass to ground.

Roll your yard with a lawn roller. You may be able to rent a roller through a tool rental store in your neighborhood. Undue harm done animals or killing by freezing will be helped by this.

Level out bumps or hills. Use a shovel to dig bumps and hills and level them.

Bud seed where essential after leveling.

Leveling the Deck – Front to back

Park your Huskee tractor on a smooth, flat surface.

Move the lifting lever into the place that is second-to-highest.

Rotate the mower blades as parallel to the tractor.

Gauge the distance into the floor from the base of the tip of the blade and then measure the distance in the base of the rear tip of this blade into the floor. The front tip distance should be 3/8 and between 1/4 inches less than the base.

Locate lock nut and the nut on the stabilizer bracket or, on certain models the flange nut, on your mower. If armed, loosen the jam nut. Tighten the lock nut to boost the deck’s front . Practice once the deck is leveled by re-tightening the jam nut.

Leveling the Deck – Negative to Negative

Park your Huskee on a flat, even surface and set the lift lever in the second-highest place. Until they are perpendicular to the tractor rotate the blades.

Measure the distance from the exterior of the blade tip into the floor, then measure the distance into the floor from the exterior of the tip that is ideal. These measurements should be the same.

Loosen — do not remove — the hex cap screw on the left bracket. The hex cap screw can be found on the mount just above the deck.

Turn the adjustment screw — situated behind the hex cap screw — with a wrench. Clockwise turns lift the blade up; lower turns the blade down.

Quantify the blades to be certain they are ; should not, continue adjusting and measuring until the sides of the blades are equivalent.

Other Scalping Causes

Slow down while pushing your Huskee walk-behind or while forcing your Huskee lawn tractor. The deck can be caused by Moving too quickly. On a tractor, adjust the throttle to a lower rate.

Increase your mower deck into a place to reduce scalping. Most cool-season grasses are meant to be cut at 2 to 3 inches tall. Some grasses might be cut too short can harm the yard, although shorter.

Check the tire pressure and inflate your tires if they are low. You ought to do this before doing deck leveling or maintenance, also mowing generally. If one or more tires are low, your whole mower will be uneven and cause irreparable or other mowing problems.

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