Description of Sunspot Euonymus

Durability under harsh conditions, excellent shade tolerance and year-round shade make wintercreeper “Sunspot” (Euonymus fortunei “Sunspot”) a flexible border tree or compact climber in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 5 through 8. As with other wintercreepers, “Sunspot” has two major shortcomings: It’s potentially dangerous, and its colorful fall berries are poisonous to pets and people if eaten in large quantities.

Ornamental Features

Yellow-stemmed, shiny foliage variegated with irregular, dark green borders and bright yellow centres account for “Sunspot’s” usefulness as a shade-garden ornamental. Its green, late-summer berries split to show seeds covered in bright orange pulp. Birds and wildlife consume the pulp and then spread the undigested seeds to new places, where they may crowd out native vegetation. The tree’s modest, greenish-white flowers bloom from late spring to early summer.

Dimensions and Form

“Sunspot” is a curved, spreading cultivar, typically reaching 3 feet tall and 4 to 5 feet wide if it is fully grown. In numerous plantings, space them 4 to 6 feet apart. The tree’s main stems produce tendrils that allow it to climb nearby trees, shrubs or structures.

Growing Conditions

“Sunspot’s” variegation is most powerful in part sun to part shade, with from two to six hours of daily sun. In hot summer climates, it will better at the lower end of the range. A young plant in an exposed spot benefits from burlap wrapping to protect it from winter wind. Once established, “Sunspot” tolerates cold down to minus 20 degrees Fahrenheit. Plant it in any soil but a consistently wet one.

Basic Care Tips

“Sunspot” prefers moist soil and takes deep weekly watering during dry spells. Spreading a 2-inch layer of ground bark mulch out of its own drip line to over 6 inches of its base preserves dirt. Working a 1-inch layer of organic compost and to the top 6 to 8 inches of soil before planting helps it be establish. Replenishing the compost each spring and concurrently spreading 4-3-4 organic wide leaf evergreen fertilizer around the drip line retains it vigorous. A “Sunspot” less than 3 feet broad gets 1 cup of fertilizer for each 1 foot of height, while bigger plants get 2 cups for each 1 foot of height.

Pruning Requirements

For the tidiest kind and most vibrant shade, “Sunspot” needs trimming in early spring. Pruning the berries until the birds get them lessens its invasiveness. Any shoots that revert to strong green ought to be pruned once they look. Pruning tools wiped down between cuts with a cloth dipped in a solution of 1 part household bleach to 9 parts alcohol are not as likely to spread infection.

Disease and Pests

Diseases seldom bother “Sunspot,” but euonymus scale insects do serious damage by feeding its sap off. The scale colonies look like white or grayish powder sprinkled along the stems or on the corners of their leaves. Even tiny numbers destroy its appearance, and a heavy infestation can make it lose its leaves or kill it. Scraping scales off or pruning badly infested branches helps, but the best control method is to saturate the dormant plants in winter or early spring with a pressurized spray of 10 tablespoons of olive oil each 1 gallon of water. Wearing safety goggles, a respiratory mask, waterproof gloves, a long-sleeved shirt, long pants, socks, shoes and a hat and also adhering to the label’s instructions is vital when spraying. Keep children and pets out of the region when you’re using garden chemicals.

“Sunspot” Sports

“Sunspot” has created two widely grown organic mutations, or sports. “Blondy’s” (Euonymus fortunei “Blondy”) yellow-stemmed, yellow-centered leaves are edged in green. “Moonshadow’s” (Euonymus fortunei “Moonshadow”) deep-green leaf margins enclose bright-yellow centres which fade to white as they age, and it never reverts to solid green. Both sports grow in USDA zones 5 through 8.

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Companion Planting Basil & Chives

Both chives (Alium schoenoprasum) and basil (Ocimum basilicum) produce chemicals that help repel some garden insects, such as aphids. Basil grows as an annual herb, while chives grow as perennials at U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 4 through 8. Companion putting these herbs with vegetables susceptible to insect damage and ornamental plants can help reduce pest damage.

Beneficial Properties

Insects are repelled from the aromatic oils created by chives and basil. The smell of these herbs also confuses foraging insects, notes Cornell University’s extension, camouflaging the aroma of the plants that the insects wish to feed on. Blending chives and basil in using other plants or putting them as a border round insect-susceptible plants can provide some protection from pest insects.

Pairing Up

Chives and basils make good companions for any plant that’s similar growing requirements, but perennial chives perform better if planted in an area where they won’t be disturbed each year. Chives also produce attractive lavender flowers, in addition to the deep green, grassy edible foliage, so they can make a suitable companion to ornamental perennials, such as roses (Rosa spp.) , which develop in USDA zones 4 through 9 depending on the variety. Basil works well with other annual plants. Although the green foliage is attractive, the plant is not highly ornamental so it makes a good companion to summer vegetables, such as tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) and peppers (Capsicum annuum).

Growing Chives

Chives do best in mattresses that drain well with moderately rich soil. Chives tolerate both complete, all-day sun and partial shade, and that means you can companion plant them under or about bushes and larger plants that will filter the sun reaching the chives. They also grow well in clumps interspersed with vegetables, annual flowers or perennial flowers, but distance them 10 to 12 inches apart so you do not disturb the chives when replacing another plants. The plants can reach up to 18 inches tall when in flower, so they may not work well with lower growing flowers or flowers. Chives can withstand moist soil, but wet, soggy soil will kill them. They function best with about 1 inch of water each week. The flowers readily self-seed after flowering, so trim off the flower heads after blossom should youn’t want more plants.

Basil Care

Basil grows in warm, frost-free weather in beds that get complete, all-day sun. The plants can grow up to two feet tall, so space them about 12 inches away from their companion plants to prevent overcrowding. Basil needs moist dirt, usually about 1 inch of water a week is sufficient to keep the top 6 inches of soil moist. After flowering, basil plants begin to fall and perish. Pinching off the tips of the plants often to prevent flower buds from forming can expand their productiveness, or you’ll be able to replace the plants as soon as they begin to flower.

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The Way to Stop the Sap From Ficus Clippings

The genus Ficus incorporates edible figs (Ficus carica) as well as many ornamentals such as the rubber tree (Ficus elastica) and weeping fig (Ficus benjamina). Ficus possess a milky sap which bleeds from wounds or reduce cells. Sap bleeding is a natural phenomenon that ceases with time and protects wounds from ailments. Edible figs are sturdy at U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 6 through 9 and also have invasive tendencies in certain places. The rubber tree and weeping fig are equally hardy in USDA zones 11 and 10b.

In rubbing alcohol or a solution of 1 part household bleach sharp pruning shears.

Put on gloves to protect your skin in the ficus sap.

Prune off a terminal branch of a ficus or rubber tree that is roughly 6 to 9 inches in length. Cut off the branch just above a leaf node. Do not worry about the bleeding out of the cut end of the branch that stays about the plant.

By pruning them off the branch cutting remove the foliage aside from the top a couple of leaves edge. This allows the cutting to place all its energy instead of developing leaves.

Put in a container full of water that is sufficient to cover this cutting’s wounded areas so the sap will dissolve into the water instead of hardening on the stem. Wait 30 minutes before removing the cutting. Shake off the excess water.

Coat this cutting’s puned finish with rooting hormone. Set the cutting in a rooting medium such as sand, moistened perlite or vermiculite. Be sure that the container includes bottom drain holes. Maintaining the soil moist.

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The Way to Use a Cobra Auger in a Washer Drain

A drain auger is known as a snake, and also this Cobra auger’s name is a play upon this fact. Three Cobra auger models can be found, Choose the premium version and drill attachment to quickly clean washer drains and your sink.

Organizing the Washer Drain

You might have to move the washer from the way; before you do this, unplug it to get the drain. A standpipe is emptied to by the drain hose, and you need to be able to simply pull it off. The drain is now ready to snake. Put on gloves and goggles before you begin.

Snaking the Drain

Unwind about a foot of cable and also feed the mind of the auger . Until you experience resistance, keep ingesting and unwinding it. At this point, lock the cable and crank the handle. If you’ve got the premium version, attach and operate the drill in a low rate to crank. When the auger has proceeded through the obstruction, then unlock the cable, feed it and operate it through obstacles you encounter. When you run out of cable, or you think the drain is clear, pour hot water down the drain.

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How to Grow Shell Gingers

Shell ginger (Alpinia zerumbet), using its large, variegated leaves and pendulous clusters of fragrant, light pink blossoms, adds a lush, stunning appearance to landscaping. It is native to tropical India and only develops outdoors within moderate environments, such as U.S. Department of Agriculture hardiness zones 9b throughout 11. Few tropical plants are easy since it is not vulnerable to disease, to nurture as shell ginger and requires little care. It looks and grows best if supplied with pruning soil and frequent water to remove dead leaves.

Plant shell ginger at a mattress with complete sunlight exposure in coastal locations and under partial shade in hot, dry inland regions. Amend the mattress using a 6-inch-thick layer of compost to a depth of 15 inches to help regulate the moisture retention and nutrient content of the soil.

Distribute a 3-inch-thick layer of mulch at a 10-inch radius around the bottom of the plant to help keep the soil surrounding the roots moist and cool. Remove in spring and replace it with a new layer from colonizing the roots, to keep fungi.

Ginger plants are shelled by water often and deeply. Run a hose at the bottom of the plant for 10 to 15 minutes a week. Increase water to weekly during periods of extreme drought or heat. Reduce water by half during the winter months. Cease watering.

Before the plant blooms feed shell ginger plants with 10-10-10 ratio mulch in spring warms to 60 degrees Fahrenheit and in summer. Apply the fertilizer at full advantage. Water afterward.

After the flowers fade, prune away all dead or damaged leaves. Snip off the leaves stems using bypass shears that are sharp. Discard the leaves instead of using them as mulch.

Watch for signs from the plant like brown edges on the leaves, which indicates that it is currently receiving inadequate moisture. Test the soil moisture with the tip of your finger. Add water to the soil if it feels dry at the inch to prevent additional harm to the leaves.

Divide and replant ginger plants every couple of years to promote prolific blooming and a lush, womanly look. Dig up the large rhizomes in spring using a shovel. Break them into 2- and replant them beneath the surface of the soil.

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Organic Greenhouse Herb Production

Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), chives (Allium schoenoprasum), sage, (Salvia officinalis), cilantro (Coriandrum sativum), parsley (Petroselinum spp.) , rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), French tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus), dill (Anthum graveolens), mint (Mentha spp.) , oregano (Origanum vulgare) are culinary herbs that prosper in the greenhouse. Some greenhouse gardeners grow for the market that is immediate, others cultivate herbs for family consumption.


Greenhouse operators provide restaurants, health food shops, produce distributors, garden facilities and market clients, locally potted or grown, fresh-cut, dried cultivated herbs.

Greenhouse Temperature

Its important to keep a temperature in the greenhouse. Greenhouse temperature must be approximately 75 degrees Fahrenheit with a soil temperature of approximately 70 degrees Fahrenheit. Depending on where in the country the greenhouse is situated, supplemental heating may be required in ventilation or winter and cooling in summer. More plants die from the rainwater from heat than they do from chilly temperatures. By Adding a shade fabric to the greenhouse 8, sun is filtered and lowers temperatures. Air flow is crucial to quality manufacturing. The air to move around.


Most herbs need eight to 12 hours of bright sunlight daily. Sunlight is supplemented with synthetic methods. LED grow lights are energy.

Organic Seed

To grow organic herbs, it is necessary to purchase certified organic seed or spread cuttings from a certified organic”mother” plant.

Natural Methods

Organic greenhouse herb production differs from conventional methods in fertilizer methods and pest management. Organic farmers use products that are natural. Synthetic ingredients and toxic chemicals found in commercial pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers have been prevented.


Worms for their castings, also known as vermiculture, is an ideal way to generate organic fertilizer that’s rich in the herbs need to flourish in a subtropical environment. Georgia wigglers will be the easiest to raise. They multiply and grow rapidly when fed a diet of kitchen scraps or garden waste. Worms could be increased in bathtubs or specially designed worm bins out there. Vegetable scraps, coffee grounds, tea bags, egg shells and fruit peels are favorite foods of garden worms. Mix with 3 parts for transplanting potting soil or split one cup of castings in 1 gallon of water. Every two weeks with a watering can, massaging the solution around these plants’ origins. Herbivore manure — sheep, cow, goat, horse, lama — is also an organic fertilizer; abundant in nutrients and minerals necessary for vigorous plant growth. Mix 1 part pulverized or manure , aged garden mulch, two parts potting soil, 1 part horticultural sand and 1 part peat moss to create a potting mixture that works for many herb transplants.


Water in a fashion that keeps the leaves of these plants dry as possible to discourage the development of mould and mildew. Most herbs do best in dry and sunny conditions. For plants, allow soil to dry between waterings.

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The Way to Maintain Faucets

Frosts can occur and wreak havoc with water pipes and your outdoor faucets Though rare in climate regions. Faucet harm in brick walls and pipe is more common in areas and in those climates since pipes and the walls are not insulated. Pipes enter the danger zone once the temperature reaches 20 degrees Fahrenheit. A burst pipe causes a homeowner’s nightmare — flooding damaged walls and repairs are just the beginning of the issue.

Close off the water valve if it’s on a separate main valve compared to the water which runs inside the home. Outdoor mains are found in basements or outside the house. In case you’ve got automatic sprinklers, the valve might be in the exact same area as the sprinkler cutoff.

Turn the faucet and let the water in the pipes to run out. Faucets and Drain pipes can not kill and freeze.

Disconnect sprayers and hoses . Drain the water from these types of hoses and store them at a frost-protected area, like a garage.

Blend the faucet is covered over by a foam faucet. Although these covers will not insulate the pipe inside the brick, they do in which it attaches to the wall and prevent frost damage from occurring at the assembly socket.

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How to Safeguard Grass Seedlings With Peat Moss

Intended for garden cultivation, peat moss creates a potting soil which allows oxygen to attain the root system of a plant and retains water. It is inexpensive and readily available at garden centers. Covering grass seed or seedlings with peat moss will not just protect the seeds from being eliminated or taken away, but it also helps prevent the seeds from drying out and adds the soil and nutrients.

Choosing Grass Seed

The type plays a major part in how well the lawn will look so choose one which develops best in your location. For instance, some areas require cool-season grasses, like perennial ryegrass or tall fescue, but others need grasses, such as buffalo, Augustine or zoysia grass. Warm-season grasses grow best when planted in while grasses thrive when planted in late summer and early fall.

Preparing The Lawn

You must germinate the seeds, before you protect grass seedlings with peat moss. Prepare the soil by eliminating debris, stones and weeds. If you use weed killer wait prior to panting the grass seed. If you are starting fresh with a new lawn, think about renting a dirt tiller to until the 6 inches of dirt.

Planting Grass Seed

Seed is implanted by spreading the seeds within the soil that was planned. This may be accomplished by using your hand along with a seed spreader. Using your head to distribute the seeds is performed on a plot smaller than 150 feet. Anything larger and you ought to use a seed spreader. Add a fertilizer to assist the seeds float, As soon as you have the seeds spread evenly across the soil and dampen softly with a water sprayer set on mist. Employing the mist setting will stop washing away the seeds.

Including Peat Moss

Peat moss can be added immediately or after the seeds have germinated. Cover with about 1/4 inch of peat moss. Water the peat moss with a water sprayer set on mist. Water the peat moss a day before the seedlings are about half an inch tall, then cut at down the watering to every couple of days.

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How to Propagate Holly Shrubs

Holly belongs to the genus Ilex, which comprises commonly cultivated shrubs grown for showy red berries and their dark-green, spiny leaves. All types of holly propagate from semi-hardwood or softwood cuttings taken in early summer or late spring, and most are simple to grow by even beginner gardeners. While possible, seed propagation is not recommended because of the usefulness of seeds, as well as their slow growth rate and higher instance of failure out of root rot and damping off.

How to Propagate Holly out of Cuttings

When gardening in the Bay region start propagation from cuttings in spring or summer. Wait until the first flush of growth seems in the ends of the branches prior to collecting the cuttings for propagation.

Prepare prior to collecting the cuttings rooting containers. Fill a 6-inch nursery container with a nutrient-poor moderate such as coarse sand or a mixture of perlite and half milled coir or peat moss. Pour water onto the medium until it is saturated, and let it drain while amassing the holly cutting.

Put on gloves to protect your hands. Locate an cutting in the tip of a holly branch. Find one with immature leaves in the tip and older leaves in the base. Measure 4 to 6 inches from the branch’s tip. Sever the holly cutting using pruning shears or a knife.

Scrape off all of the leaves along the base-half of the holly cutting. Use your pruning shears or knife to scrape the leaves. Carefully whittle a 1/2-inch-long part of bark from the base of the cutting, which is a procedure known as”wounding.”

Dip the defoliated end of the holly cutting into 0.8 percent IBA rooting talc until it is well coated. Gently tap on the cutting to dislocate any talc. Take care since it causes irritation in many men and women, not to inhale the talc.

Poke a planting hole and drained flashing medium. Make the pit to a depth equal to half of the period of your holly cutting. Insert the base of the cutting into the hole. Press the dirt against the stem and firm it.

Place the potted cutting in a place offering protection and sun against wind, cold temperatures and heat. Put the nursery container beneath a heating mat. Adjust the temperature on the heating mat degrees F.

Mist the holly foliage every day using a plant mister, spray bottle or a hose with a misting nozzle. moisture in the medium at all times ; however, Keep light, avoid since it will bring about the holly cutting saturating the medium.

Assess for indications of rooting after potting the holly cutting. Tug the foundation of the stem and sense for immunity to the movement, which suggests the cutting is”stuck” into the rooting medium by fresh roots. After rooting remove the cutting out of the warming mat.

Keep the holly cutting beneath sunlight for its first year. Transplant the cutting into a container once roots look in the drainage holes in the container that is rooting.

Plant the holly sapling from the garden in spring of the next year after soil temperatures reach 60 degrees F. Pick a sunny planting site with fertile, well-draining soil.

How to Propagate Holly Shrubs from Seed

Collect seeds out of a mature holly shrub in early fall or late summer. Collect berries and place them in a skillet. Soak the berries for 48 hours or until the berries’ flesh softens and starts to disintegrate. Crush the berries and remove the tiny seeds.

Wrap the seeds in a moistened paper towel and place it inside a plastic bag. Store the holly seeds in this style within the crisper drawer of a fridge for five weeks. It dries out remoisten the paper towel. Eliminate the seeds that are holly out of storage in spring of the year.

Prepare a container for each holly shrub you would like to spread by seed. Fill 6-inch nursery containers with a mixture of equal parts coarse sand, dirt and perlite. Sow two seeds in each container. Press the seeds onto the surface of the soil and cover them with a layer of dirt.

Water the seeds to a depth of 1 inch. Maintain moisture at a depth of 1 inch throughout the germination procedure. Allow the growing medium to dry out to watering.

Place the plants that are potted in a shaded place outdoors where they’ll be protected from strong wind, direct sun and cold temperatures, or even place them within a frame in the colder weather, more foggy areas on the west-side of San Francisco.

Watch for germination three weeks later sowing the seeds that are holly, but don’t be surprised when it takes up to sprout. Should both happen to germinate, thin the seedlings into a per container. Eliminate of the two seedlings.

Keep seed-grown holly shrubs in seasons growing prior to planting them elsewhere. Protect them from extreme temperatures and direct sun since they set a root system that is workable.

Plant them out in the backyard in springtime once soil temperatures top 60 degrees F. Pick a bright, well-draining place in the garden for planting the holly seedlings.

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The Way to Install Bifold Door Hardware

Simple repairs may make it even more marketable if you’re planning to sell a home or in the event that you want to upgrade it. 1 update is that the installation of new hardware and doors. These substances are relatively cheap, and it’s worth your time to substitute rather than swapping out old parts for new, both hardware and doors. Bifold doors come in different widths and styles. Choose a pair which best fits application and your door frame opening.

Assess the width of the opening. Cut the track 1/8 inch shorter than the opening using a saw if necessary to match. The track centered on the jamb by means of a screw gun and screws provided in the kit.

Tap the pivots. All these are pieces that the doorway uses to slide along the track.

The jamb brackets to the ground, aligned with the track. These are two metal bits bent at 90 degrees.

Add a snugger guide to the monitor together with the pivot. These are. Depress the spring in the snugger. Position it below the track and launch it to lock it in the track.

Lift the door and enable the pivots to chair in the jamb bracket and the track. Twist the little foot at the base of the doorway to adjust the height of the doorway.

Drill a hole to get a knob on the manual doorway, centered from top to bottom, 2 inches. Penetrate through the doorway half way. Drill another 3/16-inch hole through the doorway from the back. Place the knob in the hole and screw it from the back with a screwdriver.

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